HU - Hydrogeology and Environment

Journal of the Dept. of Hydrogeology and Environment, University of Würzburg (ISSN 09309-3757)

Editorial office: BGI, Greisingstr. 8, 97074 Würzburg, GERMANY

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Vol. 7 (1994)



Content


Vol. 7: 


CONTENT - 1st Hydrogeological Colloquium in Würzburg/Germany:





Abstracts - 1st Hydrogeological Colloquium in Würzburg (German)



Vol. 7, p. 1-11: 

Zusammenwirken zwischen Wasserwirtschaft und universitärer Forschung
[Cooperation between Water Administration and University Research]

H. Frisch


Keywords:
research cooperation, fractured aquifers, flow model, groundwater arsenic, karst, thermal water

Abstract: Cooperation between water administration and research institutions is of great importance for the transference of scientific results to practical application. Three examples for successful cooperation are given and briefly illustrated.

Paper language: german; german abstract



 Vol. 7, p. 13-20:

Semiarides Klima in Unterfranken als Ursache erhöhter Stoffkonzentrationen im Grundwasser
[Increased Solute Concentrations in Groundwater of Lower Franconia Caused by Semiarid Climate]

P. Udluft


Keywords:
Precipitation, Solute Transport, Infiltration

Abstract:
The concentration of dissolved solids in precipitation water will be increase by the real evapotranspiration. This enhancement in concentration is due to climatic parameters as the saturation deficit of the air and the temperature, as well as due to soil parameters like field capacity and vegetation. The factor of concentration (K) is given by the quotient of infiltration and the difference of infiltration and real evapotranspiration.

Paper language: german; german abstract



Vol. 7, p. 21-34: 

Modell zur Bestimmung des Wasserhaushaltes und der Grundwasser-Neubildung mit Hilfe deckschichtenphysikalischer Kenngrößen der Ungesättigten Zone
[Modeling Water Balance and Ground Water Recharge under Consideration of Soil-Physical Data of the Unsaturated Zone]

R. König


Keywords:
Water Balance, Groundwater Recharge, Unsaturated Zone, Soil-Physical Parameters, -K( )-Relation, Computer Model

Abstract: The water balance of the unsaturated zone can be determined by stochastic models and by simple evaluation using meteorological and soil-physical data. Concerning the characteristics of the unsaturated zone the meteorological data are changed from the static point of view towards a dynamic one, that means the consideration of meteorological data with respect to the factor time. The soil-physical measurements and calculations are regarded as the fundamentals of such investigations.

Paper language: german; german abstract



Vol. 7, p. 35-43: 

Stofftransport an bewirtschafteten Steilhängen (Rebhängen)
[Chemical Transport in Cultivated Slopes]

F. Bärle


Keywords:
Solute transport, unsaturated zone, suction cups, tensiometer

Abstract: Over a period of 2.5 years the contents of infiltration waters of two franconian vineyards, located in the Buntsandstein and Muschelkalk, were determined. Variations in chemical composition and water content were defined by chemical and soil physical analysis. Input, transport and accumulation of some selected elements can be shown in different soil levels.

Paper language: german; german abstract



Vol. 7, p. 45-56: 

Geogener Stoffbestand oberflächennaher Grundwässer Frankens
[Solute Concentrations of Near-Surface Groundwaters in Franconia (Germany)]

H. Strätz


Keywords:
near-surface groundwaters, CO2-controlled solution experiments, water constituent balance

Abstract: An attempt was made to simulate the CO2-controlled solution processes within slightly weathered rock horizons through the development of a circulating fluid solution experiment. The experiment set-up allows geogene groundwaters of differing CO2-contents to be generated, therefore characterizing and quantitatively reproducing the groundwater types occurring in the Triassic stratigraphy in Franconia. These artificially reproduced groundwaters are then compared to near-surface groundwaters of different stratigraphic units of the Triassic. Differences between the two groundwater types indicate man made influences, such as seen in part by atmospheric input.

Through a water constituent balance of main and accessory solutes the origin of the ions in the groundwater can be recognized. The atmospheric for example input results in increased nitrate and sulfate ion contents. Dissolved heavy metal ions, especially iron and zinc, may reach values as high as seen in main solutes. using the water constituent balance values dissolved heavy metals the restraining action of the upper soil horizon becomes apparent. The atmospheric and geogene input of various solutes into the groundwaters of the Triassic stratigraphy of Franconia can be quantified as a result of this research.

Paper language: german; german abstract



Vol. 7, p. 57-71: 

Arsen im Grundwasser Nordbayerns
[Arsenic in Groundwaters of Northern Bavaria (Germany)]

G. Heinrichs


Keywords:
Keuper, Middle Franconia, Arsenic, Geochemistry, Regional Geostatistics, Hydrochemistry, Paleogeography

Abstract: Regional mapping of occurring arsenic groundwaters in Franconia / Bavaria shows the appearance of elevated arsenic concentrations. in addition the arsenic concentration in groundwaters is related to the geology and stratigraphy of the aquifers. First results of geochemical-hydrochemical investigations are reported.

Paper language: german; german abstract



Vol. 7, p. 73-83: 

Unterschiede der ungesättigten Zone von Locker- und Festgesteinen in Bezug auf Bodenphysik und hydraulische Eigenschaften
[Differences of the Unsaturated Zone of Unconsolidated and Solid Rocks in Relation to Soil Physics and Hydraulic Properties]

E. Harzer


Keywords:
groundwater recharge, unsaturated fracture permeability, fracture models

Abstract: Groundwater recharge can be estimated by water balance of the unsaturated zone that the different physical and hydraulic soil parameters are examined. In solid rocks there is a strong reciprocal hydraulic effect between the fractures and the pore space. The differences between the pores, fractures and the entire rock are theoretically illustrated by literature studies. It is shown, that during high water contents fracture permeability dominates matrix permeability. With decreasing water contents pore permeability becomes the main part of the bulk rock permeability. Finally ways are presented to find the necessary permeability parameters.

Paper language: german; german abstract

 



Vol. 7, p. 85-106: 

Tracermessungen im Muschelkalk - Ergebnisse und Erfahrungen
[Experiments with traced infiltration - results and experiences]

K. Albert


Keywords:
tracer experiments, Muschelkalk, karstic terrain

Abstract: Tracer experiments were performed within the catchment area of the Mittelstreuer Springs (Lower Muschelkalk), Topographic Map Sheet 5526 Mellrichstadt, and in the catchment area of the Gerchsheimer Graben, Rödersteingraben, and Grünbach (Middle and Upper Muschelkalk), Topographic Map Sheet 6324 Tauberbischofsheim-Ost, to establish percolation and flowphenomenons of contaminated surface waters into the subsurface. The objective was to show possible hydrologic connections of surface waters with discharge localities. The Catchment area of the Mittelstreuer Springs lies within a semi-syncline, with a northwest-southeast axis. In addition, less prominent north-south trending faults, such as the Heustreuer fault zone, cut across the synclinal area. The Mittelstreuer Springs are located in the southwestern limb of the syncline. Within the area described by the topographic Map Sheet Tauberbischofsheim-Ost, northeast-southwest trending fault and joint patterns are prominent. Also present are northwest and northnortheast-southsouthwest oriented structural disturbances.

Uranin was used as a marker in the tracer experiments. In the case of simultaneous tracer investigations, such as in the vicinity of Rödersteingraben and the area of the Gerchsheimer Graben, Sodiumbromide was used. the results indicate high velocities. In the experiments 91.5 % of the tracer material was accounted for in the area of the Mittelstreuer Springs, while only 0.001 % of the tracers were found in the Tauberbischofsheim-Ost vicinity.

Paper language: german; german abstract

 



Vol. 7, p. 107-123: 

Die Porengeometrie einer Rotliegend Sandsteinkernprobe Norddeutschlands
[The Pore Geometry of a Rotliegend Sandstone from Northern Germany]

C. Bärle


Keywords:
Pore geometry, Rotliegendes (Lower Permian), Image Analysis Procedure, Pore Data, Three-Dimensional Pore Model

Abstract: The pore system of a 20 cm long core sample from a Rotliegend gas reservoir in northern Germany was reconstructed in a three-dimensional model. The model was generated by individually measured and statistically interpreted pore data. Analyzed data indicates a complex pore network. Although the total range of pore geometries are present in the analyzed sandstone, characteristic maxima occur within the frequency distributions. The pore system is much to complex and inhomogenous to be represented by an "average pore". But the determination of a "dominant pore range" is possible. Therefore the pore system obeys certain statistic laws by which it can be described.

Paper language: german; german abstract



Vol. 7, p. 125-140: 

Halogenverteilung anthropogen belasteter Böden
[Distribution of Halogens in Contaminated Soils]

R.W. König, H. Strub


Keywords:
soil halogen concentration, soil contamination, halogen solubility

Abstract: Halogen concentrations of contaminated soils were investigated at three different localities. Results show the influence of spatially oriented site localities on the composition of the unsatured zone. Concentration of contaminant input through precipitation is enhanced by evaporation. Atmogenically introduced solutes are easily removed from sandy soils with high permeabilities. In silt or clay soils solutes are accumulated within spatially or seasonally changing horizons depending on climatic, morphological and physical soil conditions.

Paper language: german; german abstract



Vol. 7, p. 141-152: 

Einfluß organischer Chemikalien auf Tonsteine
[Influence of Organic Pollutants on Claystones]

D. Pötzl


Keywords:
pollutant transport, hydraulic parameters, organic pollutants, geological barrier, claystones, laboratory tests

Abstract: Undisturbed claystones from six different geologic stratigraphies within Bavaria were circulated with destilled water, a salt-solution and artificially created organic penetration waters. To properly evaluate the hydraulic stability of the claystone a sufficient contact-time between the samples and the perculation is necessary. The duration of the experiment is at least 200 days. For the experiment a special circulatory system was constructed from materials resistent against the organic solute-waters and potentially free of sidewall leakage. The samples were placed into steel-boxes and the open space between the wall and the sample was filled with paraffin. A totally of 36 test stations are available.

Paper language: german; german abstract





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