HU - Hydrogeology and Environment

Journal of the Dept. of Hydrogeology and Environment, University of Würzburg (ISSN 09309-3757)

Editorial office: BGI, Greisingstr. 8, 97074 Würzburg, GERMANY

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Vol. 32 (2004)




Abstract



Vol. 32: 

Grundwasserneubildung im Einzugsgebiet des Ouham, Zentralafrikanische Republik

[Groundwater recharge in the catchment area of Ouham, Central African Republic]

Ariane Borgstedt


Abstract:
The main object of this work was to determine the groundwater recharge in the catchment area of the river Ouham, Central African Republic, with the existing partially fragmentary data by using different methods. The different approaches have been tested and evaluated for their applicability in subtropical areas. The river Ouham flowing in the Northwest of the Central African Republic is part of the catchment area of the river Chari and drains into the Lake Chad Basin. The area under investigation is part of the humid alternating tropics, therefore hot and dry winds coming from the Northeast are predominant from November to March or April. In this time surface runoff is taking place only in rivers of first order. From Mai to October humid winds coming from the Southeast dominate the weather. Surface runoff is formed not only in rivers of first order but everywhere the morphology and the soil characteristics admits it. The surface runoff is measured with the five staff gauges. The western part of catchment area shows the highest specific discharge, while this decreases to the east due to lower precipitation. The maximum rate of runoff is measured in September in the western catchment area, in the eastern part of the catchment areas this occurs in October. Precipitation is continuously decreasing from Southwest to Northeast with the exception of the mountainous region of “Bakoré”. Years with high of precipitation were 1951, 1952, 1954 to 1955, 1957, 1960, 1962, 1963 and 1969, whereas 1972, 1973, 1977, 1982 to 1984 and 1986 to 1987 were years with low precipitation. The area of investigation consists mainly of a proterozoic basement build of granite and gneiss, which is overlaid in the Southwest with mesozoic sandstones. The whole basement area is crossed by many faults running mainly Northwest – Southeast or perpendicular to it. Within big areas of faulting and intrusion the rock is highly fissured. The groundwater recharge is calculated first with runoff data, secondly with the “hydrological book-keeping equation” and than with a computer-based program called MODBIL. The calculation based on runoff data was carried out with the methods of WUNDT, KILLE and MAILLET. The results differ clearly. The maximum groundwater recharge was calculated with WUNDT, the minimum recharge is the one of MAILLET. For the catchment area of the river Ouham with a highly pronounced topography in the West and heavy and batch-wise precipitation, the groundwater recharge calculated with KILLE seems to be the most realistic one. The groundwater recharge decreases with the decreasing available water supply from West to East. In the West it amounts to 150 mm/year in years with lots of precipitation, whereas in the East it only comes to 79 mm/year. In years of poor of precipitation the calculated groundwater recharge is 106 mm/year in the West and 64 mm/year in the East. The results of the MAILLET-method show a recharge rate of 50 mm/year in the West and of 26 mm/year in the East which is a minimum of the groundwater recharge. The determination of the recharge with “hydrological book-keeping equation” is done as a plausibility control of the results obtained with runoff data. The recharge rates of the “hydrological book-keeping equation” are clearly higher than the one calculated with the methods of KILLE and MAILLET. With the computer-based program MODBIL point data such as precipitation, temperature and evaporation are transferred into space data using primary existing space data as topography, morphology, land use and geology. The actual evaporation, the runoff and the groundwater recharge is calculated on the basis of soil water household. The averages of the effective precipitation, potential and actual evaporation show a clear West-East-tendency. The highest effective precipitation is falling in the westernmost part of the catchment area and decreases to the East. Potential and actual evaporation increases from West to East, but this tendency is only slightly visible for the actual evaporation. The average runoff behaviour does not show any tendency. Contrary to this, the groundwater recharge decreases clearly from West to East. The rates of recharge are in the same dimension as the ones calculated with KILLE.


Paper language: german; german abstract





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